Philadelphia intimidating voters
Thurmond later read from the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and George Washington's Farewell Address.To prevent a quorum call that could have relieved the filibuster by allowing the Senate to adjourn, cots were brought in from a nearby hotel for the legislators to sleep on while Thurmond discussed increasingly irrelevant and obscure topics, including his grandmother's biscuit recipe. Opposition to the legislation, including the longest one-person filibuster in history, resulted in limited immediate impact, but the Act paved the way for a series of more effective civil rights bills in the 1960s.
, Southern whites began a "Massive Resistance." Violence against blacks rose there and in other states, as in Little Rock, Arkansas where President Dwight D.
Although the act's passage through Congress seemed to indicate a growing federal commitment to the cause of civil rights, the legislation was limited.
The alterations to the act rendered it difficult to enforce and by 1960, black voting had increased by only 3%.
Not being able to vote in most of the South, blacks were excluded from state juries in the South at the time.
Federal jury selection had been tied to state jury selection rules, thus in some instances excluding African-Americans and women as federal jurors.